- PREFABRICATED HOUSE
- STEEL STRUCTURE
- CONTAINER HOUSE
- FOLDABLE CONTAINER HOUSE PLUS
- SHIPPING CONTAINER HOUSE
- CONTAINER VILLA
- STEEL VILLA
- PORTABLE TOILET
- SECURITY ROOM & SUDAN HOUSE
potential of bamboo in sustainable development.
Recognized as a key concept of the future of humanity.
Sustainable development needs to balance the short-term business interests and long-term development of society and the company itself.
It includes pursuing both economic, social and environmental goals (
Zinc Citrate Tablets Marcus, 2005).
After more than 200 years of industrial development in the Western world and more than 50 years of \"development\" in the third world, the benefits of the magnificent design of progress and modernization are at best ambiguous.
Despite the amazing progress made in science, technology, medicine and agricultural production, the promise of \"development\" to eradicate world poverty remains unfulfilled in several parts of the world, especially in the third world (
Barbi bannaji, 2003).
Even the biggest economies are shaking in the small ups and downs of the industry.
The reason for this ambiguity is that the sustainability aspect has not been properly addressed in the rapid development efforts (
Brian Kermath, 2007).
Sustainable development refers to fairness, especially those defined by the Brundtland Commission for today and future generations (WCED, 1987).
This is true for resources and for any business.
If we take into account the sustainability of global wood resources, the availability of industrial wood in natural forests has been declining for many years.
This has attracted increasing attention to saving the forest.
As a result, the timber industry and the opportunities in this area have also been greatly affected.
Where possible, most of the wood is replaced by plastic.
However, the harm of plastic to the environment is always a Hanging Sword.
On the other hand, the strength and performance of plastic can never be compared to industrial wood.
Even Wood obtained from rapidly growing plantation species usually has lower strength properties, dimensional stability, and service life.
Bamboo is renewable, rich, low cost and friendly environment (Azmy H. J. Mohamed et al. , 2007)
Wood resources, with its outstanding strength, create the eye of hope for the struggling wood industry (A. C.
Sekhar et al. , 1962; Limaye, V. D. , 1952).
Its important applications and innovative products have great economic potential.
Due to the wide supply of bamboo in different parts of India, it provides huge opportunities for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (
Zinc Citrate Tablets Marcus, 2008).
Because bamboo resources are widely available in rural areas and industrial production requires a large amount of labor, bamboo has great potential to provide employment opportunities and income sources for rural people.
Finally realize the sustainable development of rural population (V.
Sorna Gowri, 2003;
Suresh Moktan, 2007)
Therefore, it has made a significant contribution to the economy.
Mechanical and physiotherapy
Chemical properties of Bamboo due to its excellent mechanical, physical and chemical properties, it offers a wide range of commercial and domestic products (Li Xiaobo, 2004).
Bamboo is a natural jargon.
Cellulose fibers are embedded in cellulose composites in wood and semi-cellulose substrates.
Bamboo contains 44. 5% cellulose, .
5% of wood, 32% of soluble substances, 0.
3% nitrogen, 2% ash.
The average length is 2mm and the average diameter is 10-20m (Adamson, W. C, 1978).
The geometry of the longitudinal profile of bamboo has a macroscopic functional gradient structure that can withstand extreme wind loads.
Optical fiber distribution of transverse cross
Parts of bamboo at any specific height, dense in the outer week and sparse in the inner week.
Bamboo consists mainly of roots, stems and leaves.
The most useful part of bamboo is cul.
They are hollow and vary in size, diameter, color and texture.
Culm consists of cellulose fiber and wood matrix.
The space between adjacent fiber strands is filled with a resin-wood.
The number of fiber strands increases to the outer surface of the stem.
Cellulose fiber is stronger than wood matrix. Also the cross-
The area of the section of Kum varies by location.
Therefore, the distribution of cellulose chains varies among different plant species.
Bamboo has different mechanical properties in three dimensions: Axial, radial and tangent.
However, bamboo is a biological material, which is subject to great variability and complexity due to various conditions such as growth years, soil and environmental conditions, and the position of bamboo poles in bamboo.
Therefore, it is observed that the mechanical properties of bamboo vary greatly (A. K. Ray et al. , 2005).
Bamboo has different forms, mechanical and physiological
The chemical properties of different species are different.
There are about 500 different kinds of bamboo in the world.
Mechanical and chemical properties are not fixed for all species.
This depends on the type, length of the species (
From top to bottom)
Horizontal layer (
From inside to outside)
Age of the tree (in years). N. K Naik (2005)
Seven kinds of bamboo are described: bamboos, bamboos and bamboos.
He found that the mechanical properties of these seven species have changed a lot.
The aging of bamboo poles will affect the physical, chemical and mechanical properties.
The physical and mechanical properties of bamboo vary with the age and height of bamboo (Chauhan, 2000)bamboo.
Weight gain is cumulative and is directly related to age.
It is reported that the strength attribute will drop in the old culms (Zhou, 1981). Limaye (1948,1952)
It was found that the old stem of the bamboo became 40-
50% stronger and stiff than young people. Sekhar et al. (1962)
Find the highest value in 3-
Bambusa nutans, 4.
Apart from one year old bamboo, alcohol
From the bottom to the top, the content of toluene and hot water extracts increases. Alcohol-
From 1-year-old bamboo to 5-year-old bamboo, the content of toluene extract continued to increase.
Hot water extracts increased from 1 year old bamboo to 3 years old bamboo, and then decreased from 3 years old bamboo to 5 years old bamboo. Li Xiaobo (2004)
It was found that the fiber was distributed at the highest concentration in the outer layer of bamboo.
The water content of 3-year-old bamboo in green conditions drops from the bottom to the top.
The specific gravity and bending properties of bamboo vary depending on age, height position, and horizontal layer.
They all increased from one year to five.
The specific gravity and bending properties of the outer layer are significantly higher than that of the outer layer.
The weight of the top is always higher than the bottom.
The supporting effect of outer layer on bamboo is more decisive than outer layer.
Bending strength has a strong positive correlation with specific gravity.
In order to effectively use bamboo strips in industry, it is recommended to retain the outer surface material to produce high-strength Bamboo composites.
The compression properties parallel to the longitudinal are significantly higher than those perpendicular to the longitudinal.
Compression variability perpendicular to longitudinal is significantly higher than compression variability parallel to longitudinal.
Bamboo grows in different climates, from airplanes to high mountains.
Mechanical and Physical
The chemical properties of bamboo and Bamboo composites are also influenced by climate and ecological factors, cultivation techniques and harvesting details.
Therefore, whenever a specific application is found, the origin of bamboo must be considered.
Bamboo products are most suitable for structural products due to their good mechanical and physical properties.
Bamboo composite material (
Seema Jain and others. , 1992)
It is usually used for structural products, not raw bamboo.
This is because the performance may change along the longitudinal and radial direction as well as the physical dimensions of the desired product.
For the bearing structure composite products, mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compression strength, shear strength, bending strength and bending elastic modulus are important.
Floor tiles and veneers through-the-
Thickness, compressive strength, hardness, wear resistance and anti-slip properties are important.
Nail pull is important for structural components.
Bamboo products are more and more widely used.
The main application fields are: Floor, veneer, handicrafts, decorative boards, sports equipment and other building materials.
Bamboo is used as raw material for the pulp, paper and panel industries.
They are also common in many traditional applications such as fencing, water pipes, fishing rods, umbrella handles, musical instruments and decorative crafts.
The next section will discuss the application of bamboo, which can really drive small and medium-sized enterprises.
Bamboo-based panels are products made of raw bamboo through a series of mechanical and chemical procedures such as spraying glue, laying and hot pressing. The bamboo-
The substrate has the advantages of large size, high strength and stable shape and size, and its parallel and vertical strength and performance can be adjusted according to different needs (
Zhang et al, 1995).
Bamboo-based sheet is an ideal engineering material.
At present, the bamboo-based plates that can be developed in the construction field mainly include: Mat ply bamboo, curtain ply bamboo, strip Laminated bamboo, ply bamboo, bamboo board and bamboo composite board.
At present, bamboo substrates have been widely used in the manufacture of automobile bottom plates, building formwork, scaffolding, partially replacing wood, steel, plastics as raw materials for furniture and decorative materials, etc. Bamboo-
Composite-based materials may also be suitable alternatives to prefabricated materials because they contain various advantages.
However, the application of bamboo-based plates in this area is still very limited.
The development of bamboo-based panel products has become increasingly important as these panel products reassemble the wood when used in a specific way in parallel laminated materials.
These laminating materials will have excellent physical and mechanical properties and will be suitable for structural and special applications.
Compared with bamboo mat-based composites, resin adhesives have higher requirements and therefore make the product more cost-effective, which is considered an ideal choice application for wood and plywood alternatives.
In many applications, such as doors and windows, frames, partitions, furniture, flooring and some structural applications, bamboo laminate materials can replace wood.
IPIRTI has developed a technology for bamboo laminating materials, ready for commercial use.
The bamboo fiber of paper, textiles and cardboard is relatively long (1. 5-3. 2 mm)
Therefore, the ideal choice for paper production is (El Bassam, 1998). In India, 2.
Each year, 2 million tons of bamboo are processed into pulp, accounting for about two-
Thirty of the total pulp output (Adamson et al. , 1978;
At least eight North American suppliers are importing and selling tongueand-
Groove floor made of laminated bamboo, said to be as hard, durable and dimensional as oak or other hardwood floors (e. g.
American company. Kirk, New York).
Bamboo poles cut into strips, boil with urea to remove starch, dry and laminated into solid boards
The cardboard can be treated with preservatives (such as boronic acid) before or after lamination, or both, and the pressure creates a deeper amber color
Steam the bamboo to carbonize it.
Although the adhesive will release formaldehyde for a long time after production, the formaldehyde resin content in laminated products is much lower than that of panel products (
News of environmental construction, 1999).
Bamboo textiles are much softer than the softest cotton, the surface of the bamboo fabric has a natural luster, and their hand feel is indeed similar to that of silk textiles or cashmere fabrics.
Natural resistance of bamboo fiber fabric
No harmful chemicals.
Bamboo textiles contain a reagent called bamboo kunh, which prevents bacterial culture.
Bamboo clothes not only feel cool in summer, but also warm in winter.
Bamboo fabric makes clothes more light and comfortable.
Bamboo found a new fashion in the food, it has delicious bamboo shoots recipes.
These bamboo shoots are young, new sugar cane and are harvested as food before they are two weeks old or one year oldfoot tall.
Crispy bamboo shoots.
The fat and calories of bamboo shoots are very low.
Shoots are a good source of fiber.
Fiber helps control cholesterol levels and plays a role in preventing colon cancer.
Bamboo shoots are also a good source of potassium.
It helps maintain normal blood pressure and a steady heartbeat.
When it comes to plant chemicals, natural substances found in plants, bamboo shoots are promising.
It contains the same kind of protein.
It is a component of the fiber and has many important properties that are being studied.
It appears that it has anti-cancer, antibacterial and antiviral activities.
A mild resistance to phenolic acid
It has the characteristic of inflammation and is an effective antioxidant.
Antioxidants help prevent cancer and vascular damage that can trigger artheria.
About 200 kinds of bamboo can provide delicious bamboo shoots, including: single-axis bamboo: Acidosasa, which belongs to quadrangareis and bamboo varieties. pubescens, P. praecox, P. dulcis, P. iridescens, P. makinoi, P. nuda, P. prominens, P. sulphurea cv. viridis, P.
Day insects, bitter bamboo, bamboo flowers; and 2.
Bamboos: bamboos, B.
Bamboo, bamboo, D. asper, D. brandisii, D.
Green Bamboo, D. beecheyana, D. beecheyana var. pubescens, D. stenoaurita, D.
Long handle chrysanthemum and split spike chrysanthemum.
Fresh bamboo shoots are delicious and healthy with high fiber content.
Bamboo vegetables are found in Chinese grocery stores and restaurants around the world.
The tender shoots after cooking are still crispy as cooking does not spoil their texture.
Cooked bamboo shoots can be stored in containers and shipped all over the world.
Many kinds of bamboo shoots are a well.
Known features of Chinese and other Asian cuisine, usually imported into the United States in the form of cans (
It is estimated that there are 30,000 t per year in early 1990).
Taiwan exports $50 million a year and Thailand exports $30 million a year, a large part of which will meet Japan\'s needs (Scurlock et al. , 2000).
Burning and other creatures
Energy Applications of Molini and Irizarry (1983)
It is proposed to give priority to the use of bamboo as a fuel for power generation in Puerto Rico, not sugar cane, because it has a lower water content at harvest time and does not need to be dried, however, there is very little data they provide to support their case.
Experience gained using de-limited
Wood bamboo pulp as a substrate for alcohol fermentation (
Ram and Seenayya, 1991).
Early work on diesel
Fuel like bamboo (Piatti, 1947)
Referenced by Tewari (1992);
This process appears to be the pyrolysis of \"liquor\" in bamboo pulp, but does not seem to exceed the laboratory size (Piatti, 1947).
Comments by Scurlock and others. (2000)
Evaluate bamboo as a potential bio-energy raw material and address some myths and facts surrounding it-
Its \"huge\" productivity, its \"catastrophic\" flowering, its multiple uses, etc.
Traditionally, charcoal and activated carbon are alternatives to charcoal or mine coal.
With the characteristic of absorbing smell, moisture and harmful gas, charcoal is a good air purifier.
It filters and absorbs pollutants, chlorine, pesticides and toxic substances, and is also a good water purifier.
It has a very porous structure and is a better ecological environment.
Friendly choice of charcoal.
Household items include the freshness of charcoal pillows, mattresses and refrigerators, deodorant in wet places.
This charcoal has many potential applications in agricultural activities, such as changing the soil structure, eliminating the negative effects of pesticides on plants, and increasing soil temperature and water content.
Industrial applications are healthy.
Care, gas masks, absorption of radioactive xenon and krypton, safe disposal of water and exhaust gas.
The calorific value of charcoal is almost half of the oil of the same weight.
Activated carbon can be used to clean the environment, absorb excess water and produce drugs.
China is in a leading position in production.
At present, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan Province of China are major consumers, but their imports have expanded rapidly in Europe and North America.
There is no need for high infrastructure and mechanical investment to produce charcoal.
Opportunities are therefore open to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.
Not only is the export range large, but there are also many consumers in the local market who buy this product.
Similar to charcoal and activated carbon (S. Bakshi et al. , 2003)
Other prospects for opportunities.
It is a black solid substance similar to granular or powdered charcoal.
It has a very large surface area and is usually produced by organic front qualities such as bamboo, coconut shells, Palm
Kernels, chips, sawdust, corn sticks, seeds.
First heat up the raw material in an inert environment to obtain a carbon material that is further activated to obtain a highly porous final product.
Activated carbon has several important uses, including solution purification, removal of taste and smell in living and industrial water supply, plant and animal fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and wastewater treatment.
It can also be used for gas purification, liquid phase recovery, separation processes, and catalyst carriers.
Bamboo pays special attention to this opportunity because it can effectively utilize the waste of the bamboo industry.
The process of converting bamboo into pad, laminate, floor tile, etc.
Generate a lot of dust and waste in the form of chips.
Also about 30% in length (
Top part with reduced diameter and wall thickness and bottom of half diameter part
Rigid structure with too many knots)
Cannot be converted to the above product.
Therefore, it is best for these bamboo scraps to be converted into activated carbon for high valueaddition.
In order to explore the potential of bamboo-based activated carbon on a commercial scale, the National Bamboo application task (www. tifac. org. in)
A complete \"business opportunity\" report was prepared with the technical department
Economic evaluation of entrepreneur action, market demand assessment and necessary investment.
The report provides a roadmap for viable projects for commercial scale production of activated carbon.
The mission worked with various industries to support these projects.
Bamboo plants are distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates around the world.
Bamboo fiber has high tensile and compression strength.
Its compressive strength is about twice that of concrete, and the tensile strength and weight ratio of bamboo is roughly the same as that of steel.
Every once in a while, the hollow cross section and the solid diaphragm contribute to the strength of the Bamboo Bar.
It is a renewable plant with a very short rotation cycle.
Bamboo will grow to full size in about a year.
It will take another two or three years for the factory to achieve high intensity.
The production of bamboo does not require much energy consumption, so the use of bamboo houses helps to protect the environment.
There are three main bamboo houses :(i)
Traditional houses with bamboo poles as the main building materials; (ii)
The traditional baakler bamboo house, which is smeared with cement or clay; and (iii)
Modern prefabricated house consisting of bamboo laminate, veneer and panel.
Experts estimate that more than 1 billion people live in traditional bamboo houses.
Unlike brick or cement buildings, these buildings are usually cheaper than wooden houses, light in weight, strong and earthquake resistant.
New prefabricated houses made of engineering bamboo have certain advantages.
They can be paperback and transported long distances at reasonable cost.
They are better designed and eco-friendly.
Bamboo houses are being successfully used globally, even in India, which is very popular in the Northeast States (
Ramadala ha, 2000).
Bamboo is widely used in support columns, floors, frames, partitions, ceilings, walls, thatch, doors, windows and binding in these states.
Bamboo flooring bamboo flooring is a quality product that can be widely used and has a huge global consumer market.
It has certain advantages over wood floor because of its smoothness, brightness, stability, high resistance, insulation quality and flexibility.
The bamboo floor has a soft natural luster, which keeps the natural light and elegance of the bamboo fiber.
This flooring is attractive for markets in Europe, Japan and North America that are demanding.
The annual output of bamboo flooring in China is expected to be 17.
5 million square meters in 2004.
Exports account for about 65% of total output (
China General Administration of Customs, 2004).
Bamboo products and crafts bamboo crafts and woven mats are traditional products in China, India, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand.
This technology has a history of thousands of years.
These diverse products have become an integral part of daily life, literature and art.
There are nearly 20 categories of Asian woven bamboo products, including fruit baskets, trays, bottles, cans, boxes, boxes, bowls, fans, screens, curtains, cushions, lampshades, lanterns, etc.
Traditional bamboo furniture is made of natural round or split bamboo.
A new type of \"packaging\"
Furniture \"knocked down\" with glue\"
Unlike traditional designs, this furniture can be shipped in a compact flat package and assembled on the spot.
The new design overcomes many of the problems of traditional bamboo furniture, such as high labor and transportation costs, low productivity, instability, inconsistent quality and susceptibility to insects and fungi.
At the same time, it retains the unique physical, mechanical, chemical, environmental and aesthetic features of bamboo.
Bamboo Furniture offers outstanding durability and lightweight features at a much cheaper price.
Even in hotels and resorts, it is becoming more and more popular.
Bamboo furniture is being produced in some micro and small industries in the North
East India, which is supplied in different parts of India.
Bamboo furniture exports are growing rapidly.
However, due to the lack of special codes for bamboo furniture, trade statistics do not currently reflect value.
Wooden furniture is usually classified.
Initiative of the Indian government in India, recently renewed
Discovering the potential of bamboo as one of the sunrise industries to develop bamboo led the Prime Minister to launch a comprehensive bamboo development plan in June 05, 1999 to focus on developing the bamboo sector.
Subsequently, the Indian government planning commission developed an action plan to maximize the promotion and development of bamboo during the tenth plan period.
The action plan is proposed to create 8.
There are 6 million jobs in bamboo-based development programmes, making 5.
1 million families are sustainably lifted out of poverty, improving the skills of craftsmen, ensuring food and nutrition security through eating bamboo shoots, and more.
Secure Livelihoods and nutrition.
The action plan also envisages laying the foundation for a modern bamboo economy in the context of technological inputs, people\'s participation, industrial applications and strong linkages with markets that can cope with global competition.
In addition to the pulp industry, the potential of bamboo in other large industries
Scale industries such as bamboo shoots processing, bamboo boards, flooring, furniture, new uses in construction and road construction, etc.
This was also highlighted.
After the efforts of the bamboo industry development planning committee, the technology of the National Defense Science and Technology Industry Committee, 2002, established an application on the National bamboo pole (NMBA)
Committee on Technology, Information, forecasting and evaluation (TIFAC)
The Ministry of Science and Technology will focus on the commercial application of value-added bamboo industry.
Different state governments are also actively developing the bamboo industry on a commercial basis.
Bamboo is a widely used and widely used plant that can provide ecological, economic and livelihood security for people.
8, according to estimates.
The forest area of 96 million hectares in China contains 12 bamboo.
Forest coverage was 8% per cent.
India has the largest bamboo forest in the world. Two-
The third of India\'s growing bamboo stocks is in the north. Eastern States.
In terms of bamboo diversity, India ranks second in the world with 136 species, while China has 300 species, leading the way in bamboo genetic diversity.
Among them, 58 species belonging to 10 genera were found in the north. Eastern region.
In Asia, bamboo is called the wood of the poor/the gold/Green gold of the poor, because planting, harvesting and processing are essential survival activities.
It is mainly used for household consumption, as raw materials for useful appliances and agricultural tools, as building materials for housing, fences, bridges and even water pipes.
In recent years, people have increasingly recognized the importance of bamboo as an important means of economic growth and improvement of social life.
The economic situation of the poor in rural areas.
Bamboo, as an industrial material, can replace Wood at low cost.
Bamboo has traditionally been harvested from Indian woodlands and home-cooked dishes, which may have one of many species of bamboo for family use, but have little to do in the past in terms of planting purposes.
In recent years, the demand for bamboo as a raw material for furniture manufacturing has increased at home and abroad, with panels replacing wood as farm tools, uses and vegetables related to houses/buildings.
China\'s concentrated intervention in bamboo potential has led to its productivity since 1970 2-
At present, China\'s total export of bamboo products has exceeded US $0. 55 billion per year.
To harness the potential of the country\'s bamboo crop in a number of ways
The planning commission adopted disciplinary measures and put forward a report entitled \"National Bamboo technology and trade development task (NMBTTD)in 2001-02.
The report clearly reveals China\'s potential for bamboo in the next 20 years.
Conclusion: bamboo is a fast food plant.
Renewable resources, cheap and widely available.
It has unique features and advantages in bringing ecological and social benefits.
The bamboo board has similar properties with the wooden board.
Since the utilization of bamboo will maintain good consistency with sustainable development, bamboo-based panels will become highly competitive building materials when a wide range of factors are taken into account.
At present, there is a large gap in the supply of early warning aircraft.
Prefabricated building materials, compared to other building materials, the bamboo base panel has so many advantages, which is a very good opportunity to occupy the market.
However, in order for the bamboo base panels to be better accepted by people around the world, the use of bamboo needs to be widely popularized.
If bamboo-based plates can be well utilized in the construction industry, they will make great contributions to the sustainable development and environmental protection of the prefabricated industry.
On the other hand, bamboo has a variety of applications in social growth, has been used for cultural growth since ancient times.
Most of India\'s bamboo plantations are located in Kerala and north. East states.
In fact, with the development of culture and society, bamboo has the potential for sustainable development.
The central and state governments actively promote bamboo planting and vigorously develop the bamboo industry.
These initiatives will certainly play a big role in the value of real continuous development --
Through local technology routes and small and medium-sized enterprises, bamboo has been added to cater to the domestic and foreign markets. Carlos J. Castro(2004)
Sustainable development: mainstream and Critical Perspectives, organization and Environment, Volume 117 (2), pp. 195-
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Research on physical and mechanical properties of bamboo forest, Journal of Nanjing Forestry Vocational and Technical College, Volume 12, pp. 1-32.
Anu Gupta * and Ajit Kumar * Institute of Engineering and Technology, Maidan gahiinu, New Delhi--
110068 * mailbox: gmail 339 @ gmail
Com, * ms. Email: from ajit_ignou @ hotmail.
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